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This post will walk you through the basic usage of Viper. It is intended for people who are new to the Go programming language (I am just starting out myself). This is because the purpose isn’t Viper per se, but the process of doing some of the basics in Go.


  • You have Go installed. In my case: go version go1.3.3 darwin/amd64

Setting up

First of all, we need to create a directory to house our work i.e. we need to create a workspace:

Go code must be kept inside a workspace. A workspace is a directory hierarchy with three directories at its root:

  • src
  • pkg
  • bin

Next, lets create the directory which will actually house our source code for this post / your project. In doing so, it’s handy to keep the following best practice in mind:

The packages from the standard library are given short paths such as “fmt” and “net/http”. For your own packages, you must choose a base path that is unlikely to collide with future additions to the standard library or other external libraries.

If you keep your code in a source repository somewhere, then you should use the root of that source repository as your base path. For instance, if you have a GitHub account at github.com/user, that should be your base path.

Note that you don’t need to publish your code to a remote repository before you can build it. It’s just a good habit to organize your code as if you will publish it someday. In practice you can choose any arbitrary path name, as long as it is unique to the standard library and greater Go ecosystem.

I’ll go with github.com/justincalleja/useviper and leave it at that for the moment as I am not too familiar with the go tool to tell you the whys and hows. Shortly, we will see that go can be used to fetch 3rd party source code which is publicly hosted and that the directory structure plays a role in this i.e. if you’re planning to push your code to some public repo, you’ll want to reflect that in the directory structure leading to the root of your project’s source code (e.g. github.com/<you>/<project-name>).

Before continuing, you’ll want to set your GOPATH environment variable:

The GOPATH environment variable specifies the location of your workspace.

Your workspace can be located wherever you like … Note that this must not be the same path as your Go installation.

 How to Write Go Code

I already have my GOPATH set using the set_gopath bash function which is shown above. You can put this in any file which is sourced when you start your terminal (e.g. ~/.bashrc, ~/.profile etc…).

Running some code

Finally, we can get to writing some code. If you want to, initialize a git repo at src/github.com/<user>/useviper and go ahead and add useviper.go in there:

We’re just printing to standard out and making basic usage of Viper as per usage instructions (note that if you don’t use something you import the compiler will complain about it and won’t let you build).

Now “fmt” is built-in, but what about “github.com/spf13/viper”? How do we get that dependency?

If I try running go get from the root of my workspace I get the error shown above. It seems that go get is expecting Go lang source files to be in the directory you’re running it in. Try running it again in the useviper directory where we have our useviper.go file. This time it hangs for a while. That’s because go get is scanning the source files it finds and downloading, building and installing our dependencies and code into our workspace. If we print out the directory structure down to 3 levels we get:

In our case, we didn’t really need go get to stay parsing and figuring out what dependencies our project needs as we have only one (which in turn has it’s own dependencies). We could have achieved the same result by running go get github.com/spf13/viper from the root of our workspace.

As you can see, our srcpkg, and bin directories have been populated. src now includes the source code of our dependencies recursively (Viper is in github.com/spf13/viper). pkg contains library binaries. These binaries cannot be executed but they can be linked to. bin is where executable binaries go. The main() function in useviper.go makes the result of building the file an executable binary, so it’s placed in bin and we can run it.

Since we’ve added $GOPATH/bin to our PATH environment variable (refer to the set_gopath executable function above), running useviper at the terminal is simply a matter of entering the file’s name: useviper, which gives us back “in main”.

Next, we want to be able to modify our source code and rebuild. Change your main() function to look like the following:

In order to install (build and put in bin), we find ourselves in the same sort of situation as we did with go get. We can either rely on being in the directory our source files are in and run go install, or we can specify what to install explicitly. I like having the goinstall.sh script around in my workspace root (shown below).

I thought it might be useful to install with just the project name (and a default) from the project root… but I have yet to develop enough in Go to see what is actually helpful or not in the process of writing code.

Basically, all the following will install useviper in bin for us:



If you useviper now you you should get: “Config not found…”. But if you create a file named config.yaml in the directory in which you’re going to run useviper with the following contents:

you should get back “Config found, name = viper”. Note that we did not need to set the config file’s extension in our main() as Viper picks up YAML, TOML, or JSON files automatically.

That wraps up this quick introduction to some Go lang basics 🙂